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Zinc is an element necessary for metabolic processes for tissue development and repair, but also for protection against diseases. Zinc deficiency is caused by malnutrition, a decrease in intestinal absorption and loss due to the gastrointestinal tract, urea, and sweat. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are manifested by dermatitis, baldness, and diarrhea. As with all nutritional deficiencies, the possibility of deficiency should be considered before diagnosis. The frequency or duration of zinc deficiency before the characteristic rash is not known.

Zinc and the skin
Pediatr Clin North Am. 1983 Jun;30(3):583-96
Arlette JP

Tea seed oil is widely used as cooking oil in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of tea seed oil and to investigate its active components. Extraction was performed with 5 solvents and it was observed that the methanol extract had the strongest antioxidant activity. Sesamin and a new compound (compound B) were identified. The results indicate that both of the components significantly isolated show antioxidant activity (sesamine is one of the two main components in sesame oil lignans) and they have health-enhancing effects with antioxidant effects. In addition to the traditional pharmacological effects of Camellia oleifera, it is safe to say that tea seed oil has a role as a prophylactic agent in diseases related to free radicals.

Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) oil
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 8;54(3):779-84
Lee CP, Yen GC

Pharmaceuticals are means for changing and protecting the skin from abnormal or pathological conditions. Cosmeceuticals are prescription and non-prescription drugs. Panthenol physically increases the barrier properties of the stratum corneum. The natural protective mechanism of the skin has two types: enzymatic and non-enzymatic (antioxidants).

Cosmeceuticals versus pharmaceuticals
Clin Dermatol. 2009 Sep-Oct;27(5):428-30. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.05.004
Amer M, Maged M

Zinc concentration was measured in 308 normal newborns and 199 infants of 1-12 months of age by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The zinc concentration in hair was 204 mcg/g at birth but decreased to 112 mcg/g at 8 months and increased to 144 mcg/g at 12 months. Rash in the diaper region is particularly associated with a decrease in the level of zinc in the hair, and the level of zinc in those with less hair is less than that of those with a lot of hair. The data indicate that hair loss and diaper region rash in normal newborns are associated with a decrease in zinc levels, especially in the hair.

Hair zinc, scalp hair quantity, and diaper rash in normal infants
Cutis. 1985 Jan;35(1):66-70
Collipp PJ, Kuo B, Castro-Magana M, Chen SY, Salvatore S

Moisturizers are used by many people on a daily basis to reduce the symptoms of dry skin. Topically applied lipids are said to be structurally and functionally effective on the permeability barrier. The effects of 9 different oils in the normal skin and SLS-irritated skin were investigated in 21 healthy individuals. Apparent irritation, blood flow in the skin and TEWL were measured. The tested substances are non-soap substance fractions obtained from hydrocortisone, petroleum jelly, fish oil, borage oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, karite oil, canola, and karite oil. Water was added as the control group. No significant differences were observed between test substances in normal skin. However, differences were observed between SLS-irritated skins. With the use of sterol-enriched canola oil following water, the signs appearing on the SLS-irritated skin are less commonly mentioned. This fraction and hydrocortisone reduced blood flow in the skin. Additionally, hydrocortisone, canola oil and its sterolce enriched fraction significantly reduced TEWL compared to water. Other lipids had no significant effects on irritation. As a result, lipids commonly used in moisturizers reduce skin reactions against irritants. Previous studies have shown that sterol synthesis is increased in damaged skin. Canola oil and its fractions have been shown to support the skin barrier damaged by appropriate lipids in the SLS-irritated skin.

Effect of topically applied lipids on surfactant-irritated skin
Br J Dermatol. 1996 Feb;134(2):215-20
Lodén M, Andersson AC

The shells derived as by-products while C.oleifera oil was obtained have not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of flavanoids obtained from these shells. Camphenol flavanoid was defined and this substance was first found in C.oleifera. It showed an anti-inflammatory effect depending on the dose. Additionally, bioflavonoids showed an analgesic effect, unlike aspirin. Bioflavonoid significantly decreases malonaldehyde (MDD) and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in serum, and acts against free radicals in in vivo studies.

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a novel biflavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera
Int J Mol Sci. 2012 Sep 27;13(10):12401-11. doi: 10.3390/ijms131012401
Ye Y, Guo Y, Luo YT

In this study, we will focus on macronutrients, micronutrients in the pulp, extract, and oil of karite oil, and the physicochemical properties of karite oil. The extract of the plant is high in oil and the oil obtained by extraction using traditional method is used in food preparation, medical and cosmetic industry. Biochemical properties of the oil show some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

Nutritional composition of shea products and chemical properties of shea butter: a review
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(5):673-86. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.604142
Honfo FG, Akissoe N, Linnemann AR, Soumanou M, Van Boekel MA

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is a component of Coenzyme A and acts as a cofactor in many enzymes catalyzing reactions. These reactions are the metabolization of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, sterols, steroid hormones, and profilin. Panthenol is the alcoholic analog of Vitamin B5.

Dexpanthenol = D-panthenol

Topical use of Dexpanthenol (the stable alcoholic analog form of pantothenic acid) increases the hydration of the stratum corneum, decreases TEWL and provides the softness and elasticity of the skin.

Efficacy and safety of innovative cosmeceuticals
Clin Dermatol. 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):367-74. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2008.01.013
Gao XH, Zhang L, Wei H, Chen HD

Lanolin use is restricted due to its odor, cost and for being the overall cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Mineral oils are light and cheap and they do not have any odor or taste. The main concern with its use is that it is comedogenic.

Moisturizers for Acne: What are their Constituents?
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014 May;7(5):36-44
Chularojanamontri L, Tuchinda P, Kulthanan K, Pongparit K

The main pathogens in poultry infections are E.coli and S. aureus, their resistance to antibiotics has recently caused some troubles. Biofilm formation in drug resistance is a very important reason. The efficacy of saponin isolated from C.olifer was assessed by the prevention of amoxicillin-resistant E. coli and erythromycin-resistant S. aureus and by the therapeutic effects on chickens infected with these two bacteria. As a result, the inhibition of bacterial growth was increased, and the bacterial count was significantly decreased after saponin administration and saponin administration with antibiotics in in vivo tests. The saponin called Camelliagenin was a significant inhibitor on E.oli and S.aureus biofilms. This was achieved by a decrease in MDH (mannitol dehydrogenase) activity and extracellular DNA (eDNA) content. The molecular affinity reveals the strong interaction between saponin and MDH or Edna. As a result, the mechanism of increasing the antibiotic effects of Cameliagenin occurs with the interaction of MDH and Edna in the biofilm.

The camelliagenin from defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera as antibiotic substitute to treat chicken against infection of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 18;11:214. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0529-z
Ye Y, Yang Q, Fang F, Li Y

Palmitic acid (16.42-26.36%), stearic acid (32.39-36.36%), oleic acid (38.12-29.09%), linoleic acid (9.72-5.92%) and arachidic acid (1.84-1.59%) were observed in the chromatographic profile of the karite oil. Examples also contain essential minerals such as Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, etc., carotene (550±50 and 554±50 ppm), Vitamin A (0.065±0.001 and 0.032±0.001 µg/g) and Vitamin E (2992±1.9 and 3788.44±1.9 ppm).

Improving the optimized shea butter quality: a great potential of utilization for common consumers and industrials
Springerplus. 2015 Nov 4;4:667. doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1454-0. eCollection 2015
Megnanou RM, Niamke S

Polysaccharides were ultrasonically extracted from the C.Oleifera leaves and these were optimized. The crude polysaccharides were purified and three fractions were obtained. In vitro, antioxidant amount of all three polysaccharide fractions were also observed to have significant antioxidant activity depending on concentration. Polysaccharides obtained from C.oleifera leaves can be examined as natural antioxidants.

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Camellia oleifera leaves
Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Jul;68:7-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.04.026. Epub 2014 Apr 22
Feng S, Cheng H, Fu L, Ding C, Zhang L, Yang R, Zhou Y

LS-ES1-IT-TOF/MS and LC/UV-ELSD methods were used for qualitative analysis of triterpene saponins from tea seed pulp (C.oleifera abel). LC/UV method was also developed for the quantitative analysis of oleifera saponin A1. Purified total saponins exhibited no inhibitory effect at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml except for S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, they showed high inhibitory activity against fungi, especially against Bipolaris maydis.

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of triterpene saponins from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel) and their activities against bacteria and fungi
Molecules. 2014 Jun 6;19(6):7568-80. doi: 10.3390/molecules19067568
Zhang XF, Yang SL, Han YY, Zhao L, Lu GL, Xia T, Gao LP